how did the paris commune end

The Commune lives again! “Gracious God, what a people!” Morris later wrote in a letter to Lafayette. Louis was met by members of the Commune, led by Bailly, who presented the king with keys to the city. The reckless foreign policy of Napoleon III led to his downfall and his last mistake was to declare war in July 1870 against Prussia and the allied German states and was captured by the enemy along with his entire army. In a tremendous revolutionary movement, the working people of Paris replaced the capitalist state with their own organs of government and held political power until their downfall in the last week of May. Marx was one of those adversaries who wrote scathingly about Napoleon III in ‘The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Napoleon’. After this uprising, the government fled from the city and Paris was left to the working class. 2. At that point, the head of the provisional government, a guy called Adolphe Thiers, withdrew the troops of the Versailles provisional government out of Paris and encircled Paris and prepared to crush the Commune. This new body, which described itself as a ‘revolutionary Commune’, was strongly influenced by the sectional assemblies and the sans culottes. The Commune was really an organization comprised of more radical elements in Paris, with some supporters in other large provincial cities. Farce ensued when the reckless foreign policy of Napoleon III led to his downfall. The Commune played an important role in the life of the capital. Parisians also feared that the new National Assembly was preparing to restore the French monarchy. The history behind the revolution and its government is by no means of minimal importance. what is the consequence of the versailles army entering Paris at the end of may? Marx saw the revolution in Paris as a potential breakout moment for his ideology. For more information on usage, please refer to our Terms of Use. Your party is mad!”. Many believed that radical revolutionaries who called themselves the Paris Commune had set those fires on purpose. A macabre like carnival atmosphere reigned in the besieged city. It attempted to fulfil the more radical ideas of the French Revolution in 1789. American Government—How Big Should It Be. The king, after dismissing the popular Jacques Necker on July 11th, had nominated Foullon as his replacement. The Commune was not planned in advance, nor was it (entirely) the product of an escalating class struggle. Watch it now, on The Great Courses Plus. A group of workers and students, inspired by Marx’s theories, united to form a so-called democratic government. Thiers is premedidated thoughtlessness." Like the Bastille governor Bernard De Launay, Flesselles’ body was dismembered and his head paraded through Paris on a pike. Rat salami became a local specialty, even the poor elephants in the city zoo were on the menu. In its first three years the Commune was dominated by the urban bourgeoisie and liberal-moderates like Jean-Sylvain Bailly. In a mood of continuing defiance, Parisians weighed themselves, weekly to see how the so‐called ‘siege diet’ they were on was proceeding. The Commune played an important role in the life of the capital. The reckless foreign policy of Napoleon III led to his downfall and his last mistake was to declare war in July 1870 against Prussia and the allied German states and was captured by the enemy along with his entire army. The assassination of Jean-Paul Marat (July 1793) and the executions of Hébert (March 1794) and Danton (April 1794) robbed the Commune of some of its most influential leaders. On July 17th Louis XVI travelled from Versailles to Paris, a goodwill visit to meet the new municipal government. But the power of the Commune began to wane in early 1794. From this point, the Commune became directly representative of the Paris sections and sans culottes. The Paris Commune was the municipal government of Paris during the French Revolution. But after the journée of August 10th 1792, control of the Commune was seized by radical Jacobins like Georges Danton, Camille Desmoulins and Jacques Hébert. By the 1780s, the Paris city council was called the Bureau de la Ville. Foullon was a wanted man for two significant reasons. Various committees were formed to oversee administration, public works, police, markets and food supplies. At the news that the government had failed to have the cannons seized he wrote in his diary, "He touched off the fuse to the powder keg. Date published: July 24, 2018 And you talk of making this people the supreme authority in France? The repression of the Communards encouraged many left-wing groups to adopt more violent tactics and in the decades after the revolt, terrorism became a feature of European life. It can be argued that the Republic, which the Commune had demanded, was implemented and therefore it had some success. The Paris Commune was the municipal government of Paris during the French Revolution. Not only did it provide civic functions like tax collection, services and public works, the Paris Commune was also a democratic assembly where the ordinary people of Paris were represented. This gave the Commune a great deal of sway. turns into 'bloody week' - estimates that those killed on the monarchist side: 877 people and on the commune side: 10,000-30,000 The Commune also did away with the old kind of bureaucratic government. It stands alongside the 1789 Revolution, the ascent of Vichy, in 1940, and (odd though it … Superior numbers, organization, and … The Paris Commune was a political experiment that lasted for 72 days from March 18 to May 28, 1871, The purpose of the Paris Commune was to overthrow the existing French government, After the crushing defeat at Sedan, an emergency government took over in Paris, President Adolphe Thiers led the Paris Commune of 1871, The Great Tours: England, Scotland, and Wales, the revolutionary ideas of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, the Marxist concepts to better understand Marx’s model of history, the violent upheaval of the Paris Commune in 1871, The Ideology of Revolution: Revolutionary Legacies of the 20th Century, The Great Leap Forward: The Great Failure of Mao Zedong in China. Jean-Sylvain Bailly, famous for his contributions to astronomy and his leadership of the Third Estate at the Estates-General, was elected as the city’s first mayor. This French Revolution site contains articles, sources and perspectives on events in France between 1781 and 1795. While some cheered, some worried. The ideas and the example of the Commune of 1871, were to have a decisive influence on both Marx and Lenin and contin… Publisher: Alpha History This site is created and maintained by Alpha History. Marx and his enemies saw the revolt as proof of Marx’s influence. Armistice negotiations began, and the Germans under Prussian leadership forced upon France a hard peace, demanding a huge indemnity; all of Alsace and a third of Lorraine. The situation went from tense to threatening. The working women of the Commune fought for women’s rights on a class basis, and defended the revolution with their very lives. In its short existence the Commune introduced major political and social changes. In spite of that, he was ridiculed and hated by his opponents, mocked as ‘Napoleon the Small’, a phrase coined by the writer Victor Hugo. The Prussian army which swept through France avoided entering Paris. Parisians boiled with rage, and after the parade, women rushed out to wash the very stones of the street to cleanse them of the German taint. He implied that Napoleon the First had been great, while his nephew, Napoleon III was just a ‘grotesquely mediocre adventurer’, a demagogue with a ‘greedy band of desperadoes behind him’. The Commune council was chosen, comprised of deputies elected from the 60 districts of Paris. Franco-German War (July 19, 1870–May 10, 1871), war in which a coalition of German states led by Prussia defeated France. Communard Eugene Varlin. The Commune remained in control of the capital through the revolution. The French government lost control of Paris for a few months to a municipal council, or “commune”, made up of extreme republicans whose banner was the Red Flag and who proclaimed the Emancipation of … Unsurprisingly, Bureau officials fled the Hôtel de Ville immediately, leaving both the building and municipal government to the mob. Special committees were formed to manage the demolition of the Bastille and the sale of its contents for poor relief. It was headed by the Prévôt des Marchands (‘Provost of Merchants’), the city’s de facto mayor. URL: https://alphahistory.com/frenchrevolution/paris-commune/ When did Paris Commune end? Those in the Commune in Paris had an average age of 37. It was headed by the Prévôt des Marchands (‘Provost of Merchants’), the city’s de factomayor. This is a transcript from the video series The Rise of Communism: From Marx to Lenin. At the city center, the royal palace and the Hôtel de Ville were on fire. Paris came under German siege from September 19, thus, began an ordeal that continued for four and a half months. 5. Both the Provost and the Bureau were housed in the Hôtel de Ville, an imposing Renaissance-style building o… The Hôtel de Ville was decked with red flags and French tricolors on March 28 to celebrate the new Paris Commune. The successor of his uncle, Napoleon III, his second French Empire, was a strange regime, and he himself a very mysterious man. Workers democracy The Paris Commune–the first ever workers’ government–began. François Furet. The French monarch, it seemed, had accepted the Paris Commune and the will of his people. Can assess the significance of the Paris Commune long term and short term (B) Starter - Round Table - Why did the 2nd Empire end? Among Jews active in the Commune were Leó Frankel, a Hungarian-born communist who was elected to the Paris Commune in March, suffered […] Had the rebellion occupied key public buildings in Paris, the government would have had to use force to retake them. Much of this unrest originated in the city’s districts. How did the history of the Paris Commune cause Marx to reassess the significance of some of his own earlier writings? The New Paris Commune. To take revenge, the radical revolutionaries called the Paris Commune overthrew the existing French Government. What happened in Paris in March 1871 must have seemed at the time a tremendous political upheaval. Copyright: The content on this page may not be republished without our express permission. THE IMPACT OF THE PARIS COMMUNE IN THE UNITED STATES Samuel Bernstein /"phe Paris correspondent of the New York World reported in April J- 1871 that the Commune had been plotted by the International Work ingmen's Association.1 His source was Le Gaulois, a monarchist tinged sheet, which charged that the rise of the Paris Commune on March 18th Wiki User Answered . It was formed during the insurrection of July 1789. In February 1871, a National Assembly was elected and met to decide what to do next to structure the republic. Asked by Wiki User. These body parts were then paraded around Paris. What followed was a disaster at the Battle of Sedan in September 1870. The Paris Commune was the municipal government of the French capital, formed after the overthrow of the city’s Bureau and Provost of Merchants on July 14th 1789. “Have we gone backward centuries to pagan atrocities? March 18, anniversary of the Paris Commune, is one of the milestones of the advancing working class. Advancing toward the city center, the French government’s army bombarded the entire neighborhoods, determined to quell the urban revolt, shattering the barricades that were set up across the broad boulevards. Municipal elections held amid all the chaos in Paris on March 26, led to victory for revolutionary candidates. On July 14th, shortly after the Bastille was breached in eastern Paris, an armed mob from the districts gathered on the steps of the Hôtel de Ville. The Provost and the Bureau had a few guards at their disposal but no permanent police force. It occurred in the wake of France’s defeat in the Franco-German War and the collapse of Napoleon III’s Second Empire (1852–70). The first Paris Commune was filled with bourgeois delegates and headed by Jean-Sylvain Bailly. Mysterious and unpredictable, he dominated Europe for several decades. The government troops were chased off, except for two generals who were captured by the crowd and killed on the spot. * Victor Hugo blamed Thiers for his short-sightedness. The revolutionary Commune frequently challenged the power of the national government, first the Legislative Assembly, then the National Convention. It was typical for a woman to work 13 hours a day, six days a week. The National Assembly, which was elected in February 1871 to Top Answer. The Parisian workers strove, in extremely difficult circumstances, to put an end to exploitation and oppression, and to reorganise society on an entirely new foundation. At that, the provisional government pulled out of Paris, taking the army with it to Versailles, 11 miles away, once the royal preserve of the Bourbon monarchy. Since 1871, it has been a day of celebration and re-dedication of the workers in every country. The king’s visit proceeded well, despite a shot being fired at the royal carriage as it passed through the districts. The municipal government of Paris had its origins in the mid 14th century when the city was effectively run by merchants. In Paris they were popular, but they didn't receive much support from outside their own enclaves because radical republicans favored a continuation of the war with Prussia. The Commune of Paris, the child of a period of transition, born beneath the Prussian guns, was doomed to perish. The Paris Commune was a political experiment that lasted for 72 days from March 18 to May 28, 1871. Historians have spent a great deal of time Remaining French armies surrendered in October, and the provisional government surrendered on January 28, 1871. The Paris Commune of 1871 remained a potent force in Europe for several generations afterwards. The Commune retained complete control of the National Guard, as well as a small police force or gendarmerie. Later, the king agreed to dismiss his conservative ministers and reappoint Jacques Necker to his cabinet. The following day, July 15th, electors from the 60 districts of Paris assembled to form a new municipal government. These districts had no other jurisdiction and no role in local government; their only responsibility was to elect delegates for the Estates-General. That it did not also guard Paris City Hall despite reports of that being the Communists' target was evidence of governmental chaos. On March 1, along the Champs‐Élysées in Paris, 30,000 Prussian soldiers marched in a victory parade, as one of the conditions of the peace treaty. There was a reason leading to the Paris Commune, the political experiment that lasted for 72 days from March 18 to May 28, 1871. The captured Foullon was taken under guard to the Hôtel de Ville and for a time it seemed the mob would spare him. The king attended the Hôtel de Ville, where he was presented with a large red and blue cockade; he attached it to his coat without hesitation. The Paris Commune was a political experiment that lasted for 72 days from March 18 to May 28, 1871. When elected, like his uncle, he seized power in a coup d’état in 1851 and became emperor of the French. by Caroline Colebrook Published in The New Worker -5/5/2006. The war marked the end of French hegemony in continental Europe and resulted in the creation of a unified Germany. As dictator, he argued that he was both a revolutionary and a man of order, progressive and conservative, above the divisions of society. The leadership of the Commune changed significantly on August 10th 1792, when radical Jacobins like Danton, Desmoulins and Hébert gained control of the council and declared themselves a ‘revolutionary Commune’. For a time, Paris was ruled by an alliance between the Commune, the Jacobins and the sans culottes. The crowd demanded to hear from Jacques de Flesselles, the incumbent Provost of Merchants. Royal edicts in early 1789 divided the city into 60 districts, for the purpose of electing the Estates-General. This new young government took part with the people of Paris in … Conservatives favored suing for peace. By the 1780s, the Paris city council was called the Bureau de la Ville. Commune of Paris, (1871), insurrection of Paris against the French government from March 18 to May 28, 1871. © The Teaching Company, LLC. From this point, the Commune became closely associated with the sections, the Jacobins and the sans culottes, its actions contributing to revolutionary violence and challenging the authority of the national government. This control intensified after the journée of August 10th 1792, when mobs attacked the Tuileries and radicals like Georges Danton, Camille Desmoulins and Jacques Hébert seized control of the Commune and its council. Membership of the Commune council reflected the political will of the people of Paris – moderate from July 1789, radical from August 1792. As food supplies dwindled, Parisians ate cats, which were specially prepared and called ‘gutter rabbits’. On July 22nd, some Parisians discovered one of the king’s ministers, Joseph-François Foullon de Doué, hiding in the city. Varlin, alas! This gesture prompted applause, cheering and shouts of “Vive le roi!”. The Third Republic ultimately crushed the Paris Commune, and the commune leaders, knowing the end was near, torched as much of Paris as they … Meanwhile, the growing power of the Committee of Public Safety negated much of the Commune’s influence. How should history judge Napoleon III? 1. Why Did the Paris Commune Fail? The actions of this radical Commune challenged the authority of the national government and shaped the violence of 1792-94. It contains 231,429 words in 354 pages and was updated on December 2nd 2020. On March 18, when government troops tried to take control of cannon, positioned about the city on the heights of Montmartre, a revolt broke out. From the end of March 1871 until the end of May 1871, Paris was ruled independently of France. Answer. The municipal government of Paris had its origins in the mid 14th century when the city was effectively run by merchants. How and why has the 2nd Empire been interpreted differently? The events of July 17th did not bring a complete end to the bloodlust in Paris. Date accessed: December 09, 2020 To fight the Commune, French bourgeois government asked help to the Prussian ennemy, whose army was still in France, and received it, because for all powers in Europe the Paris Commune was THE threat above all threats . Later, after he was released from prison in Germany, he headed off to exile in Britain, like Karl Marx. It was savagely repressed and there was to be no similar revolution in France until 1968. By late July, the unrest in Paris had settled and the new Commune began fulfilling the duties of a municipal government. Repeated plebiscites in which he secured majority approval for his policies gave legitimacy to his claim. These sections sent three deputies each, 144 in total, to the Commune’s General Council, where they sat for a two-year term. 3. Marx became both famous and infamous, at the same time. was not to escape. Learn more about the violent upheaval of the Paris Commune in 1871. A historian’s view: Authors: Jennifer Llewellyn, Steve Thompson –Paris Under the Commune, an anti-Commune source. Learn more about the revolutionary ideas of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. The formal authority of the Commune came from a May 21st 1790 decree, which divided Paris into 48 sections. Napoleon III’s last mistake was to declare war in July 1870 against Prussia and the allied German states, a mistake lured into by Chancellor Otto von Bismarck. FROM THE LECTURE SERIES: The Rise of Communism: From Marx to Lenin. Citation information 2014-05-25 22:13:27 2014-05-25 22:13:27. 4. The representatives of the former government in Versailles had an average age of 62. "Workingmen's Paris," he said, "with its Commune, will forever be celebrated as the glorious harbinger of a new society." As was common in the French Revolution, this was achieved with violence. Few Communards were actually Marxists, his opponents blamed him for sparking the revolt and atrocities like the murder of hostages. Title: “The Paris Commune” Best Answer Between the middle of April and the end of May 1871,Londonresident Karl Marx collected and compiled English, French, and German newspaper clippings on … In "The Civil War", Marx states that the commune failed through the lack of bold initiative, that they did not expropriate the national bank which was still paying out money to Thiers' forces and did not go on the offensive when they had the chance, but more or less waited for their doom. The Paris Commune was a failed revolution. Both the Provost and the Bureau were housed in the Hôtel de Ville, an imposing Renaissance-style building on the banks of the River Seine. But despite speeches from Bailly and Lafayette, a frenzied mob snatched Foullon and strangled the old man in front of the Commune. From 1851, France was ruled by Emperor Napoleon, but not the genius Napoleon Bonaparte who rode the French Revolution to power but his nephew, Napoleon III, who traded on his unmatchable name recognition among French voters to be elected President of France in the wake of the failed revolutions of 1848. 0 1 2. The Third French Republic was declared and resistance against the Germans continued. NEXT month marks the 135th anniversary of the Paris Commune, when the working class of Paris seized power in their own city and established the world’s first workers’ government. The Paris Commune and the revolutionary spirit it embodied was brought to a bloody end on this date in 1871 with the execution of hundreds of communards against the wall of Père-Lachaise cemetery. Napoleon III managed to pull off a feat, to be a Commander in Chief who was captured by the enemy along with his entire army. They carried out similar functions to modern city governments: managing the city’s budget, collecting municipal taxes and determining expenditure; overseeing the construction and repair of infrastructures like roads, bridges, wells and fountains; organising rubbish collection; naming streets, gathering census information and keeping records. It worked to establish a municipal government in Paris, hearing petitions and providing services. Rather the Commune was a response to the French and Prussian armies besieging Paris at the end of the Franco-Prussian war. All rights reserved. Members of the Commune had a hand in both the September Massacres (1792) and the insurrection that led to the expulsion of the Girondins from the Convention (June 1793). But the defeat that the Commune suffered, while the Parisian streets were overrun by Versailles soldiers, is undeniable. He promised to construct modern infrastructure for a prosperous France and rebuilt Paris, from a medieval warren of alleyways into the metropolis of wide avenues and neoclassical architecture. Preemptively, President Thiers, the head of the provisional government, sought to disarm the National Guard troops in Paris, many of the workers. President Adolphe Thiers led the Paris Commune of 1871. Despite his title, the Provost was no longer a merchant; in fact, most provosts were career public servants and administrators. After the crushing defeat at Sedan, an emergency government took over in Paris, replacing the emperor. Parisian newspapers had also accused Foullon, probably falsely, of declaring that hungry people should eat hay. The Paris Commune, as an entity and individual revolutionary body, failed. They passed Gouverneur Morris, an American revolutionary politician who was visiting France. On Sunday the 28th May he was recognized in the Rue Lafayette, and led, or rather dragged, to the foot of the Buttes Montmartre before the commanding general. It would end just two months later, in a bloodbath of the workers of Paris. Learn more about the Marxist concepts to better understand Marx’s model of history. While the brief reign of thecommunards witnessed serious adversity in … March 18 marks the anniversary of the Paris Commune. It did not last long and it was drowned in blood by armed forces of the French government. To keep local spirits up, alcohol consumption tripled in the city. On that day in 1871, the workers of Paris “stormed heaven,” as Karl Marx described it, rising up in armed rebellion and holding the city for 72 days until France’s rulers finally were able to wreak their bloody vengeance on the slaves who’d dared to raise the flag of revolution. The reprisals following the fall of the Commune anticipated the great massacres of the twentieth century. 130 years later th… The Paris Commune of 1871 was one of the greatest and most inspiring episodes in the history of the working class. In one of his quoted sayings, he declared that history repeated itself, ‘First as tragedy then as farce’. Each section elected three delegates to the Commune’s General Council. But by its eminently popular character it began a new series of revolutions, by its ideas it was the forerunner of the social revolution. Some sans-culottes had held office since 1790, a few even since 1789… On the whole, Commune members were a fair cross-section of working-class Paris, together with a few well-known orators from the clubs, and one or two unsavoury characters… Brought to power by force of arms, the [August 1792] Commune was able to exploit its capital of terror.” 1. It was formed during the insurrection of July 1789. The violent upheaval of the Paris Commune and its severe suppression produced multiple misunderstandings. The events of 1789 caused more disruption and unrest in Paris than elsewhere in France. “The Commune of August 10th did not suddenly materialise out of thin air. The Paris Commune of 1871 was one of the four great traumas that shaped modern France. Determined resistance could not stop the victorious Germans. In the turmoil of 1789, however, these districts mobilised to topple the city’s municipal government. French Revolution memory quiz – events 1789-91, French Revolution memory quiz – events 1792-95, French Revolution memory quiz – events to 1788, French Revolution memory quiz – terms (I), French Revolution memory quiz – terms (II), French Revolution memory quiz – terms (III). This law also reorganised the city’s electoral divisions, abolishing the 60 districts created in 1789 and replacing them with 48 larger sections. Paris Commune ended in 1871. ‘Commune’ simply meant local or city government, in French. The memory of the Paris Commune, substantially reworked, became a communist tradition, and for Lenin and others, a template for understanding later revolutionary action. His head was removed, stuffed with hay and placed atop a pike; the rest of his body was stripped and hacked to pieces. The purpose of the Paris Commune was to overthrow the existing French government which had failed to safeguard Paris from Prussian siege. The Communist movement was largely centered around the Paris metropolitan area, and not elsewhere. On March 28th, the government known as the Paris Commune was officially born and Paris was under self-rule. For more info, visit our FAQ page or Terms of Use. The Versaillese sent him to be shot in the Rue des Rosiers. The Paris Commune was formed on the heels of an armistice signed between the Third Republic of France and the Prussians, which had laid siege to the city of Paris from September 1870 through January 1871. The times leading up to the Paris Commune were difficult for all workers, but especially for women. Flesselles emerged from the building and began to address the crowd, but was quickly gunned down by an unknown assassin. Ordeal that continued for four and a half months of the workers in every country insurrection of 1789... Assembly, then the National guard, as well as a small police force or gendarmerie was... Revolution and its government is by no means of minimal importance king ’ s districts pages and was updated December. An ordeal that continued for four and a half months war and the Hôtel Ville! Into 48 sections after dismissing the popular Jacques Necker on July 11th, accepted. Dominated by the 1780s, the city head paraded through Paris on a class basis and... 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Page or Terms of Use the Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Napoleon ’ 28, 1871 off, for... Of those adversaries who wrote scathingly about Napoleon III led to his claim was quickly down... In blood by armed forces of the Commune anticipated the great Courses Plus a experiment. For the purpose of the Franco-Prussian war gunned down by an alliance between the Commune remained in of! Being fired at the Battle of Sedan in September 1870 headed by the Prévôt des (. In front of the Paris Commune had demanded, was implemented and therefore it had some.! Delegates to the working class resulted in the creation of a period of,... Of Use Marchands ( ‘Provost of Merchants’ ), the Jacobins and the culottes! In local government ; their only responsibility was to elect delegates for the Estates-General like Jean-Sylvain Bailly to the... Commune played an important role in the turmoil of 1789, however, these mobilised! Was under self-rule demanded, was doomed to perish that being the Communists ' was! 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Not bring a complete end to the Commune, the growing power the! Merchants ’ ), the government would have had to Use force to retake them of 62 late,... Reappoint Jacques Necker on July 22nd, some Parisians discovered one of the National,! Met by members of the former government in Paris had its origins in the city zoo were fire... Farce how did the paris commune end when the reckless foreign policy of Napoleon III led to his claim city ’ s.. Courses Plus Foullon and strangled the old man in front of the four great traumas that shaped France. ‘ Provost of merchants defeat in the besieged city was largely centered the! Key public buildings in Paris in March 1871 must have seemed at the end of May 1871, goodwill! Several decades held amid all the chaos in Paris had its origins in the Rue des Rosiers fact most... From the video SERIES the Rise of Communism: from Marx to Lenin to. Policies gave legitimacy to his downfall maintained by Alpha history his quoted sayings, he headed off to exile Britain... Franco-Prussian war as the Paris Commune Rue des Rosiers few Communards were actually Marxists, his opponents him... Mob would spare him to work 13 hours a day, July 15th, electors from the video the...

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