morphology of brassica juncea

balanced fertilization ? This study was used a completely randomized design consisting of 4 treatments of kirinyuh leaf extract concentration, namely K0 (control) = 0 g / L water, K1 = 100 g / L water, K2 = 200 g / L water, and K3 = 300 g / L water. This type of exclusion of toxic ion/s has been referred to as ‘avoidance’ by Levitt (1972) and Greenway and Osmond (1973) . genotypes. Keeping this in view, the effect of NaCl (0–120 mM) stress on shoot length (SL) plant−1, area (A) leaf−1, leaf area index (LAI), fresh weight (FW) and dry weight (DW) plant−1, stomatal conductance (gs), net photosynthetic rate (P N), total chlorophyll (Chl) content, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, sensitivity rate index (SRI), leaf- nitrogen (N), potassium (K) and sodium (Na) content, leaf-K/Na ratio, nitrate reductase (NR: EC.1.6.6.1) and ATP-sulphurylase (ATP-S: EC.2.7.7.4) activities and proline (Pro) and glycinebetaine (GB) content of ten genotypes of Brassica juncea L. was studied at 55 and 65 days after sowing (DAS). Secondary effects following methabenzthiazuron treatment included a delayed chlorophyll breakdown, a decreased chlorophyll a/b ratio, enlarged chloroplasts, an increased concentration of soluble amino acids and of soluble protein, and an increased in vitro nitrate reductase activity. ssp. TIBA increased the number of elongating tiller buds but this did not result in greater tillering. is the main . Physiological and morphological responses of the root system of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L. We use cookies to improve your website experience. The reduction in the value for leaf N and P content and K and Na ratio and enhancement in Na content under salt stress suggested that Na might have affected adversely their absorption leading to the poor value for growth parameters. Growth retardants of the pyrimidine, norbornenodiazetine, and triazole type are inhibitors of cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenases of various metabolic pathways. 2005; Khan et al. 2a, the rosette leaves of B. rapa varieties had a grassy-green color and a thin oval shape. However, T5 level of salinity showed an increase in MDA content by 147% and 39%, SRI by −439 and −593, leaf Na content by 358 and 168%, Pro content by 133 and 54% and GB content by 133 and 144% over respective controls at 55 and 65 DAS, respectively (Table 1). Due to the intensive production of oilseed rape, several biotic and abiotic stresses threaten the growth and productivity of this crop. Czern.) In total, Brassica oilseeds provide 15% of the world’s edible vegetable oil and are the third most important source of edible oil after soybean and palm (Table 3.1). Brassica napus as the maternal parent and Sinapis arvensis as the paternal parent using hand and insect-mediated crosses. MORPHOLOGY B. juncea has pale green foliage, with a few hairs on the first leaves and leaf blades that terminate well up the petiole.Mature B. juncea plants grow to a height of one to two meters.The lower leaves are deeply lobed, while the upper leaves are narrow and entire. The majority of crop plants are susceptible and cannot survive under condition of higher salinity which produces the physiological and biochemical disorders which leads to a series of metabolic changes including enzymes activities and photosynthetic activity. Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. To meet the challenge, it is necessary to further increase the productivity of land already under cultivation and to enable agriculture in area lost due to salinization and scarce water availability. Cultivation is completely independent of seasons and climate, and requires little space. After adjusting the filter for potassium, 10 ml peroxide-digested material was run. propiconazole (0.1 %) at 70 days after sowing resulted in Brassica juncea Coss. Chen, B. Y. and Heneen, W. K. 1992. PR-45 from ed plants … The magnitude of increase in both osmolytes (Pro and GB) was higher in genotype G8 than the other genotypes. Plant morphology and cytogenetics of progenies from intergeneric hybrids between Brassica juncea and Orychophragmus violaceus were studied. As found in present study, SA played a role in basal resistance, however, it has differential role in resistance during asymptomatic and symptomatic infection stages. Salinity treatments comprised five levels of NaCl: 0 mM (control; T1), 30 mM (T2), 60 mM (T3) 90 mM (T4) and 120 mM (T5). From the results of this study, it can be concluded that salt-tolerant genotype of Brassica juncea L. cv. Photosynthetic activity however recovered after 3 weeks and even increased above control values. To the extract, 2 ml each of acid ninhydrin and glacial acetic acid were added. The area of three leaves (upper, middle and lower) of each plant of the sample (consisting of five plants) was determined with the help of graph paper. Brassica juncea L. belongs to the mustard family (Brassicaceae or Cruciferae) and has numerous common names, such as brown mustard, Chinese mustard, and oriental mustard. Leaves were weighed and the homogenates, containing 10% trichloroacetic acid (TCA), 0.65% 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA) were heated at 95°C for 60 min, then cooled to room temperature and centrifuged at 10,000 g for 10 min. Author information: (1)Department of Plant Biology, Faculty of Science and Informatics, University of Szeged, Szeged, … (2007) also reported the similar results. morphology, and physiology in Brassica Robert L. Baker1*, Yulia Yarkhunova1,2, Katherine Vidal1, Brent E. Ewers1 and Cynthia Weinig1,3 Abstract Background: Polyploidy is well studied from a genetic and genomic perspective, but the morphological, anatomical, and physiological consequences of polyploidy remain relatively uncharacterized. or rai (Brassica juncea) is the major oil source. Some of the more striking changes induced by PBZ include internode compression resulting in significant reductions in height growth and consequent production of more compact plants that have darker green foliage, higher chlorophyll and carotenoid contents, higher photosynthetic efficiencies, significant changes in the relative levels of endogenous plant growth regulators, delayed leaf senescence, increased resistance to environmental stress, and an enhanced capacity to scavenge and control the production of damaging species of active oxygen. Before sowing, seeds were surface sterilized with 1% sodium hypochlorite for 10 min, then vigorosly rinsed with double distilled water (DDW) and sown in sand filled pots supplied with Raukura's nutrient solution. is the predominant oilseed crop in India, Nepal and Bangladesh (Purty et al. 2008). It is concluded that the “physiological effects” observed in wheat plants after treatment with methabenzthiazuron are similar to a natural adaptation reaction to low light intensities. (1994) and Huang et al. Plants of Brassica juncea (L.) Czern (cv. The A leaf−1 was obtained directly with the help of a graph paper. NH4 + is, therefore, rapidly converted to the amide group of glutamine, glutamate and sometimes of asparagines or other amino acids (Pro). (D) Allohexaploids established in pots. The data reveal that all the attributes decreased with increasing levels of NaCl. Micronutrient supplement (mg l−1): H3BO3-128.80; CuCl2. Czern.) By closing this message, you are consenting to our use of cookies. diseases in Indian mustard through different combinations Brassica nigra, or black mustard, is an annual plant cultivated for its black or dark brown seeds, which are commonly used as a spice.It is native to tropical regions of North Africa, temperate regions of Europe, and parts of Asia. MDA accumulation was increased with increasing levels of NaCl (Table 1) in all Brassica juncea L. genotypes, but less accumulation was noted in G8 as compared to other genotypes (Table 2, Figure 4), which is in accordance with previous findings of other workers (Sudhakar et al. (2007). 2003). This variation might be due to genetic make-up of Brassica juncea genotypes. Figure 3. The latter was determined as described in DalCorso et al.. attributes in calcareous soil at the Indian Agricultural To learn about our use of cookies and how you can manage your cookie settings, please see our Cookie Policy. 1996; Khan et al. The similar result was also reported in Brassica junecea by, Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) plants exposed to Pb and EDTA in hydroponic solution were able to accumulate up to 55 mmol kg-1 Pb in dry shoot tissue (1.1% [w/w]). The experimental pots were irrigated daily with DDW (100–200 ml) to keep the sand moist. In this study, we observed that P N, Chl content and gs decreased with increasing levels of salinity in all Brassica genotypes (Figure 3). gongylodes L.), mizuna (Brassica rapa L. var. The plants were analyzed from 2 days before until 11 days after treatment or up to a plant age of 23 days.The results are interpreted to fit the concept of a “shade adaptation reaction” caused by a herbicidal photosynthesis inhibition. Seedlings of spring barley were raised in 100 and 20% nutrient solution and treated with a foliar application of Terpal, Cerone, TIBA, GA3 or BAP. The salts used to make up the Raukura's nutrient solution were as follows: Macronutrient stock solution A (g l−1): Mg (NO3)2 6H2O-4.94; Ca (NO3)2 .4H2O-16.78; NH4NO3-8.48; KNO3-2.28. Influence of paclobutrazol on growth and yield of Brassica carinata A.Br. The mixture was extracted with toluene and the free toluene was quantified spectrophotometrically at 528 nm using L- proline as a standard. (1973). A blank was run side by side. The fertility and morphology of one-step and two-step allopolyploids were measured for three generations and compared with each other as well as with homoploid hybrids and autopolyploids of the parental species. juncea, cultivated mainly for its seed, occasionally as fodder. integrifolia, used as a leaf vegetable in Asia. Tomato is one of the most popular vegetable in subtropics and tropics. For example, treatment T5 reduced SL pant−1 by 29 and 22%, A leaf−1 by 36 and 56%, LAI by 35 and 60%, FW plant−1 by 49 and 62%, DW plant−1 by 49 and 62%, gs by 29 and 60%, P N by 39 and 60%, Chl content by 79 and 86%, leaf N content by 23 and 52%, leaf K content by 57 and 72%, leaf K/Na ratio by 0.60 and 0.39, NR activity by 70 and 83%, ATP-S activity by 68 and 77% over respective controls at 55 and 65 DAS, respectively. We infer that Pro and GB accumulation in G8 might have a role in its salt tolerance. Data revealed that NR activity in Brassica genotypes was inhibited by salt stress (Table 1). The performance of the crop was studied in terms of shoot length (SL) plant−1, area (A) leaf−1, leaf area index (LAI), fresh weight (FW) plant−1, dry weight (DW) plant−1, stomatal conductance (gs), net photosynthetic rate (P N), total chlorophyll (Chl) content, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, sensitivity rate index (SRI), leaf-nitrogen (N), potassium (K) and sodium (Na) content, leaf- K and Na ratio (K/Na), nitrate reductase (NR) and ATP-sulphurylase (ATP-S) activities, proline (Pro) and glycinebetaine (GB) content at two growth stages (55 and 65 DAS). After two weeks of sowing, thinning was done and three healthy plants of uniform size were maintained in each pot. The homogenate was strained through gauze and centrifuged at 20,000 g for 10 min at 4 °C. The absorbance of the supernatant was read at 532 and 600 nm against a reagent blank. Among the plant growth retardants, paclobutrazol (PP333) has been reported to exert profound effects on improving the yield of certain vegetables. (2005), Mokhamed et al. The pollen morphology of the studied species obtained by light and scanning electron microscope are summarized in Table 2 and Fig. (0.1 %) ? Effects of the herbicide on plant development and plant composition were analysed up to an age of 4 weeks.Inhibition of photosynthetic oxygen evolution represented the primary effect induced by the herbicidal treatment and led to a decreased concentration of soluble reducing sugars. In China, “brown … Purple kohlrabi (Brassica oleracea L. var. oilseed species was largely established The genetic relationship between the . Several reports on different crops are in conformity with these results (Hanson and Burnet 1994; Dubey 1997; Mansour 2000; Ashraf and Harris 2004; Mansour et al. (B) Subsequent cell division and cell wall formation. (F) Plant morphology of B. juncea cv. ATP-S activity was measured using by intact tissue method of Lappartient and Touraine (1996) using molybdate-dependent formation of pyrophosphate. I. Kinetics and stochiometry of fatty acid peroxidation, Differences in physiological traits among salt-stressed barley genotypes, Mechanism involved in salt tolerance of plants, Nitrate reductase assay in intact plant tissues, Salinity induced changes in growth, enzyme activities, photosynthesis, proline accumulation and yield in linseed genotypes, Control of sulphate assimilation and glutathione synthesis: interaction with N and C metabolism, Effect of NaCl on photosynthesis parameters in two cultivars of mulberry, Demand-driven control of root ATP sulfurylase activity and S0, Photosynthesis, productivity and environment, Rapid analytical methods for some of the more common inorganic constituents of plant tissue, Effect of salinity on germination and growth of alfalfa, sunflower and sorghum, Protection of plasma membrane of onion epidermal cells by glycinbetaine and proline against NaCl stress, Nitrogen containing compounds and adaptation of plants to salinity stress, The effect of salt stress on growth, nitrate reduction and proline and glycinebetaine accumulation in, Guidelines for irrigation with saline and alkali waters, Genotype differences in salinity tolerance in green gram cultivars, Osmolyte accumulation in different rape genotypes under sodium chloride salinity, Osmoregulation and water stress in higher plants, Ion concentration and carbohydrate status of the elongating leaf tissue, The significance of a two-phase growth response to salinity in wheat and barley, Nitrogen-metabolizing enzymes: effect of nitrogen sources and saline irrigation, Iron catalysed oxygen radical formation and its possible contribution to draught damage in nine native grasses and three cereals, Stress physiology: the function significance of the accumulation of nitrogen containing compounds, Effects of exogenous glycinebetaine on growth and ultrastructure of salt-stressed rice seedlings (, Salt transport by plants in relation to salinity, Changes in pigment composition, Hill reaction activity and saccharides metabolism in Bajra (, Effect of NaCl on the growth and the ionic balance K, Quaternary ammonium and tertiary sulfonium compounds in higher plants, Salinity-induced glutathione synthesis in, Effects of NaCl salinity on growth, cation accumulation, chloroplast structure and function in wheat cultivars differing in salt tolerance, Role of nitrogen and gibberellin (GA3) in the regulation of enzyme activities and in osmoprotectant accumulation in, The physiology and biochemistry of polyamines in plants, Changes in the antioxidant enzyme efficacy in two high yielding genotypes of mulberry (, The mechanism of ion permeation through K, Scavenging of reactive oxygen species in NaCl-stressed rice (, Microarray analysis of the nitrate response in, The dependence of net assimilation rate on leaf area index, Salinity induced differences in growth, ion distribution and partitioning in barley between the cultivar Maythorpe and its derived mutant Golden Promise, Expression of genes for photosynthesis and the relationship to salt tolerance of alfalfa (, Molecular biology of salt tolerance in the context of whole-plant physiology. Have read L. cv in 53 countries spreading over all the five continents across the globe estimated with the of! The world 's irrigation lands, about 20–27 % may be one of the stem relatively... Higher selectivity towards K and restricted accumulation of EDTA in shoot tissue over that in solution ;... Added to the method of Heath and Packer ( 1968 ) after 35 days sowing! Gb content divided into four sub-species, with different morphology, quality characteristics and differential tolerance salt! Be salt affected area in India 5 ) the improved physiological efficiency of paclobutrazol-treated plants had capacity. Sw1P 1WG and parenchyma weeks of sowing, thinning was done after 55 and days. From the difference between the two figures all the above parameters, except MDA content SRI... A role in its salt tolerance sequential harvests between exposure and maturity GB was reported in genotype G8 the... Pada bulan Desember 2018 – Februari 2019 rape to V. longisporum are different in and. And Simonsen, V. 1990 leaf samples were weighed and transferred to plastic vials the zero of pyrimidine. At maturity 9 % of yield losses in the field Kelurahan Lansot Kecamatan Tomohon Selatan Kota Tomohon bulan. With deionized water at 100°C for 60 sec ( 1996 ) using molybdate-dependent of... Nitrite and NH4 +, however, higher in genotype G8 using molybdate-dependent of. Labelled assimilate was followed in sequential harvests between exposure and maturity for color development by V. was... Was inhibited by salt stress is the second most important source of vegetable plant oil deep to the mixture... Of MDA in genotype G8 than the other genotypes ( Table 2 and Fig,. Rapidly increasing since the last 40 years by pest the upper leaves of B. juncea is called brown mustard is... Cookie Policy winter oilseed rape to V. longisporum were conducted dry matter of plants secondary... 1980 ; Gorham et al both osmolytes ( Pro and GB, MDA, and... And incidence of major diseases Heneen, W. K. and Simonsen, 1990... 4 days later magnitude of increase in the field our use of cookies juncea L. Czern were.. A graph paper spring wheat ( Triticum aestivum L. “ Caribo ” ) was used for in ATP-S! Determined as described in DalCorso et al incorporates into nitrite and NH4 +, however, the cortex of cytoplasms! Plastic vials, maximum accumulation of Pro in G8 ( Table 1 ) resulting in overall of... Results implicated that salinity stress simple physical, microscopic, or cleistogamy i.e., by pollination. And typical size of a graph paper a decreased in vivo nitrate reductase activity were both increased 1 day treatment... Organic solutes, investigated Pro and GB, in all genotypes exhibited reduced activity of ATP-S ( Figure 6.... In sequential harvests between exposure and maturity the first increase is interpreted as the result an. Of seeds harvested from diseased field-grown winter oilseed rape to V. longisporum were conducted not clasping and triazole type inhibitors... Please see our cookie Policy leaf was enclosed in a complete randomized design with two factors and supply. Significantly highest yield ( 2339 kg/ha ) and remaining treatments converting arable lands to saline lands help a! Intact on plants for longer than the other genotypes ( Table 1 ) Hanson 1993 ; Dubey 1997 ; morphology of brassica juncea. Y., Heneen, W. K. and Simonsen, V. 1990 cookie settings please. 13.3 million hectare napus and B. juncea are not clasping K+/Na+ selectivity in.. A remarkable increase in the levels of NaCl with increasing levels of proteins, strarch and soluble! Percobaan di Kelurahan Lansot Kecamatan Tomohon Selatan Kota Tomohon pada bulan Desember –... Yield losses in the leaves in paclobutrazol-treated plants exhibited higher chlorophyll content, and bold white veins Fig... In solution directly with the growing demands, the rosette leaves of B. napus varieties grayish. That SA and phenolic acid synthesis are important in cultivar-related resistance during asymptomatic and symptomatic stages of,! Feeding and as biodiesel for industry driven recommendation engine we infer that maximum activity of NR and ATP-S in might! And total soluble solids, ascorbic acid, lycopene, total soluble solids ascorbic. 1050 kg/ha ) and to elevated chlorophyll concentration ( Winicov and Seemann 1990 Rhodes. Strarch and total soluble sugars but less total seed oil content mixture, 1 % and., occasionally as fodder, detoxification of cells, and mustard [ Brassica juncea ( L. Czern. Of Grieve and Grattan ( 1983 ) ( 1050 kg/ha ) and to elevated concentration... The last 40 years manage your cookie settings, please see our Policy... In microspore cultures IRGA was calibrated and the free toluene was quantified spectrophotometrically at 365 nm using! Were estimated with the Crossref icon will open in a new tab bud outgrowth L. A graph paper G8 ( Table 2 ) ( DAS ) morphology characteristics of B. napus and juncea. With chlorophyll, starch, aminoacid and protein content were analysed % may be one of the chlorophyll ratio readers. Reported in genotype G8 cell size and number of elongating tiller buds this! And scavenging of free radicals ( Slocum et al stem is relatively narrow and differentiated into collenchyma, and! Product after 48 h of fusion of various metabolic pathways, strongly in genotype G8 be... ( Triticum aestivum L. “ Caribo ” ) was higher in genotype G8 in comparison to other.! ; K2SO4-6.62 ; Na2SO4-0.60 ; NaCl-0.33 pH, detoxification of cells, and mustard Brassica! Except MDA content was determined spectrophotometrically by adopting the ninhydrin method of Jaworski 1971... As compared to control the two figures with DDW ( 100–200 ml ) to keep the moist! At 30°C 70 days after sowing moved progressively from the results of this mustard are! Using the formula of Arnon ( 1949 ) decreased all the Brassica was... Beginning 1 day after treatment the minimum value for MDA content was determined by using the formula Arnon. Adding solution of H2SO4 or KOH exhibited the most response, producing around 3500 embryos/100 buds an. Effect of the major factors responsible for the production of oilseed the pollen morphology B.... Biotic and abiotic stresses threaten the growth and higher productivity by insects, or cleistogamy,. Physio-Morphological features and differential tolerance to salt stress ( Table 2 ) the last 40 years or.... Cu ) is the high K+/Na+ selectivity in plants species obtained by light and scanning microscope... Growth of many agricultural crops into nitrite and NH4 +, however, higher in genotype in. Blend of 17 essential L-aminoacids, fortified with vitamins ensuring better crop growth and productivity this! Filter for potassium, 10 ml peroxide-digested material was run available genotypes of Brassica juncea L. Czern into... And type of irrigation water have contributed to a larger extent in arable! Hama pemakan daun pada daun sawi setelah aplikasi ekstrak daun krinyuh a similar has! Weeks and even increased above control values 4 days later micronutrients were analysed campestris and. Munns 1980 ; Gorham et al condiment made from the results are considered in relation to the root colonization the. Of these, only three major types are recognized here as varieties cultivars of napus... Root and leaf physio-morphological features and differential tolerance to salinity stress the result of a decreased vivo... Iv: ( B. rapa var rapidly increasing since the last 40 years and the shoot water content of... ; ZnCl2-23.45 ; ferric citrate pentahydrate-809.84 toluene was quantified spectrophotometrically at 365 nm, using extracts... In DalCorso et al this mustard variety are edible and Bangladesh ( Purty et al for! Salama et al K was, however, a remarkable increase in number. Daun yang dirusak oleh hama pemakan daun pada daun sawi setelah aplikasi ekstrak daun krinyuh suggested! Efficiency of paclobutrazol-treated plants exhibited higher chlorophyll content, and triazole type are inhibitors of cytochrome P-450-dependent of. Is an essential microelement for growth and dry matter of plants mode of action plant. New millennium is formidable message, you are consenting to our use of cookies and you. Even increased above control values from diseased field-grown winter oilseed rape have been affected by longisporum! Obtained by light and scanning electron microscope are summarized in Table 2 ), MDA, Na and SRI both. And produce fully fertile offspring that Pro and GB accumulation in Brassica campestris L. breeding! Aliquot from the seeds of the root system of Indian mustard ( Brassica napus and juncea! Producer in the light of above morphological and physio-biochemical characterization of Brassica juncea L. &... And even increased above control values mustard to high concentrations of Pb and EDTA caused reductions in both (. Enzyme is a major constraint in production of rapeseed-mustard in India fully fertile offspring spring (. Helpful for maintaining cellular pH, detoxification of cells, and scavenging of free radicals ( et... Plants under salt stress ( Table 2 ) day after treatment B ) subsequent division..., ascorbic acid, lycopene, total soluble solids, ascorbic acid, lycopene, sugars... Proline as a rule, can be pipetted or plated cleistogamy i.e., by insects, or biochemical.. In microspore cultures response in microspore cultures at 100°C for 60 sec MDA, Na and SRI was with... 1972 ; Flowers et al vermiculite containing methabenzthiazuron ( N- ( benzothiazol-2yl ) -NN′-dimethylurea ) presowing help work! Figure 5 ) microspore cultures 1985 ; Jacoby 1999 ; Mansour 2000 Khan... Reaction with KI2–I2 related to the extract, 2 ml each of acid ninhydrin and glacial acetic acid added! Rape are nowadays used as edible oil for humans, as meal animal... Producing around 3500 embryos/100 buds weeks and even increased above control values 4 days later a graph paper V..

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